IWM’s ‘Western Front’ Violin

RICHARD MADDOX

IWM's 'WESTERN FRONT VIOLIN' and bow. IWM catalogue reference EPH 709. Original source https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30080949.. 9

IWM’s ‘WESTERN FRONT VIOLIN’ and bow. IWM catalogue reference EPH 709. Original source https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30080949.

IT’S NOT A RELIC OF WAR.

Rather it is a unique memorial to the dead.

Made in 1983 – almost seventy years after the conflict broke out – from pine and sycamore that grew at La Boiselle, Authuille and in a copse at Bois Quarante near Ypres on the Western Front, the violin was crafted by professional musician Kenneth Popplewell. (1)

Born in Hammersmith, London in May 1914 he had already showed his talent for music by winning a number of competitions by the age of 11. However this was in the mid 1920s and he felt compelled to follow his father’s advice and find a job that would provide some degree of financial security. Thus he became an apprentice printer at 14.

The Second World War interrupted his career as it did for millions of others. Following service in the King’s Royal Rifle Corps he decided to follow his dream of being a professional musician and became a member of Britain’s Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in 1946. He would continue playing for the RPO and the BBC Symphony Orchestra before becoming the leader of the Waford Philharmonic Orchestra in 1982.

He created the violin to honour all those who lost their lives during the First World War. His original idea was to raise funds for war charities through concerts and then putting the violin up for sale. (2)

The Imperial War Museum originally had the violin on loan before being gfted the instrument in 1992 following Kenneth’s death.

The associated bow was made by Charles Bazin, one of three members of the family with that name. (3)

Marked ‘C Bazin’ it is possibly made by Charles Nicholas Bazin (4) or his son Charles Louis Bazin. (5)

Kenneth’s violin has a special place in IWM’s collection. Visitors have heard it played at the annual IWM London’s Remembrance Day Service in November and on special occasions such as IWM’s Night Before the Somme centenary event in 2016.

STEPHANIE CHILDRESS plays IWM’s ‘Western Front Violin’.
Images copyright © Richard Maddox 2016. All images used with permission.

There Stephanie Childress (pictured above at the event) played Fauré’s Aprés un Revê, Op 7 just before midnight on 31 June 2016.

More information

More information about conductor and violinist Stephanie Childress can be found at her website and on that of her agent, Harrison Parrott, https://stephaniechildress.com/en/home/ and https://www.harrisonparrott.com/artists/stephanie-childress

As usual IWM commemorates the Armistice of 1918 with short ceremonies IWM North, IWM Duxford and IWM London that give opportunities to reflect.

Details can be found at:

IWM North:
http://www.iwm.org.uk/events/remembrance-ceremony-north-2019

IWM Duxford: http://www.iwm.org.uk/events/iwm-london/armistice-ceremony-at-iwm-duxford

IWM London: http://www.iwm.org.uk/events/remembrance-ceremony-london-2019

Sources

(1) https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30080949 – retrieved 11 February 2019

(2) http://www.optimamagazine.co.uk/read/features/history-and-heritage/1525-strings-from-the-somme – retrieved 11 February 2019

(3) https://tarisio.com/cozio-archive/browse-the-archive/makers/ – retrieved 11 February 2019

(4) https://tarisio.com/cozio-archive/browse-the-archive/makers/maker/?Maker_ID=44 – retrieved 11 February 2019

(5) https://tarisio.com/cozio-archive/browse-the-archive/makers/maker/?Maker_ID=45 – retrieved 11 February 2019

A little about IWM Duxford’s English Electric Lighting F1 interceptor XM135

RICHARD MADDOX

IWM DUXFORD’s ENGLISH ELECTRIC LIGHTNING is a very early production example of the type.

Designed to protect Britain’s nuclear bomber force by intercepting Soviet aircraft that may target the bomber bases, even this early example could reach almost twice the speed of sound within minutes of taking off. (1)

Eventually more than 300 Lightnings would see service with the Royal Air Force as well as the air forces of Kuwait and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

It would evolve and serve for more than 30 years. (2)

ENGLISH ELECTRIC LIGHTNING Interceptor XM135 on display at IWM Duxford. The aircraft wears the colours it had when in service with No. 74 Squadron RAF. Copyright: © R Maddox 2019.

ENGLISH ELECTRIC LIGHTNING Interceptor XM135 on display at IWM Duxford. The aircraft wears the colours it had when in service with No. 74 Squadron RAF. Copyright: © R Maddox 2019.

Lightning XM135 first flew on 14 November 1959 before serving in a variety of RAF units during a career spanning almost 25 years. (3)

During this time it became the last flying example of the F1 variant remaining in RAF service.

In 1962 while serving with No. 74 (F) Squadron RAF the aircraft was part of the ‘Tigers’ – the official RAF Fighter Command display team at that time. (4)

The team was formed of nine Lightning aircraft and named after the tiger’s head emblem on the squadron badge. (5)(6)

In July 1966 XM135 was about to be assigned to the Target Facilities Flight (TFF) at RAF Leuchars in Scotland and was undergoing major servicing at No 33 Maintenance Unit based at RAF Lyneham, Wiltshire.

TFF units were formed to provide training for pilots flying other more modern Lightning aircraft in interception and combat techniques.

On Friday 26 July it unexpectedly took to the skies in the hands of the 33 MU’s Commanding Officer, Wing Commander Walter ‘Taff’ Holden.

Having read engineering at university, joined the RAF in 1943 and qualified as a pilot, Holden had chosen to serve as in the Engineering Branch.

Both he and the Air Ministry considered that his hands on flying experience would give him greater insight into rectifying the engineering problems that aircrew might report.

Having qualified on piston engined trainers his only experience of military jet flying was as an observer in a Gloster Javelin fighter and in an English Electric Canberra.

ENGLISH ELECTRIC F.1As undergoing deep servicing at No. 60 Maintenance Unit at RAF Dishforth. Image copyright © IWM. IWM catalogue reference RAF-T 4439. Original source https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205378780.

ENGLISH ELECTRIC F.1As undergoing deep servicing at No. 60 Maintenance Unit at RAF Dishforth. Image copyright © IWM. IWM catalogue reference RAF-T 4439. Original source https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205378780.

No. 33 Maintenance Unit was a mixed civilian and RAF unit that serviced after Meteor, Canberra and Lightning aircraft before they were returned to flying duties, either with their original unit or reassigned.

As part of his staff Holden had a qualified jet pilot who test flew the serviced aircraft. This officer was not qualified on the Lightning aircraft but Holden was able to ‘borrow’ a qualified and current Lightning pilot when necessary – often from nearby RAF Boscombe Down, the RAF’s test and evaluation centre.

As mentioned above XM135 was being reassigned to TFF and a persistent electrical fault that appeared when the aircraft was in moving in the first few metres of its take-off run.

This situation continued for weeks with the No 33 MU’s electricians replacing components time after time only to have the fault reappear. Not only was this frustrating to all involved, it was creating a backlog – and at a time when the unit was being prepared for closure.

On top of this at least one Boscombe Down pilot had said he would not fly the aircraft (and thereby clear it for reassignment to the TFF unit) until the fault had been clearly identified and rectified.

The pressure was on.

The electrical engineers decided to do a phased testing of all the possible electrical circuits that might be causing the fault.

They devised a plan whereby a pilot would be asked to run the engines move the aircraft about 50 metres and to operate banks of temporary switches each time which would be connected to monitoring equipment. In addition as these tests needed a section of (unused) runway a radio link was established with the airfield’s control tower so that they knew what was happening in case of any emergency.

Knowing that Holden was a qualified RAF pilot and that the all that was required was to move the aircraft over a short distance – and possibly also knowing that the tests could be repetitive and time-consuming – a Boscombe Down pilot suggested that Holden do the engine runs.

For ease of access and because of the additional monitoring equipment the aircraft had its canopy removed.

In addition the aircraft’s undercarriage was locked firmly in place and the ejector seat pins inserted so that a slip of the hand couldn’t send the aircraft crashing to the concrete below or the pilot rocketing into the sky above.

After a five-minute briefing on how to start the huge jet engines, Holden – wearing overalls and ear defenders like the rest of the ground crew – climbed into the cockpit and watched as the aircraft was towed to an unused runway.

Strapped into the aircraft, Holden had a member of his staff radio the airfield’s Air Traffic Control (ATC) to say he was starting the tests.

He noted the switch positions on a note pad, applied the aircraft’s brakes and then gently opened the throttle – feeling the aircraft vibrate as it strained against the brakes – moved the aircraft about forty metres, reapplied the brakes and flicked the switches back and added any relevant comments to his notepad.

With ATC permission he repeated the test with different switches and positions. The aircraft moved another forty metres. More notes and more flicking of switches.

While this second test was being conducted ATC had stopped a fuel tanker at the side of the runway and before the third test started had told it to cross to the other side.

Permission was sought and granted by ATC for what Holden thought would be the final test. He made his notes, repositioned switches, held the brakes and moved the engine throttles forward.

Then it happened.

He misjudged the extent of the throttle movement and the engines roared into reheat.

Now unburnt fuel was being mixed with the exhaust stream supplying even more power.

The eleven ton (11340kg) aircraft overcame the brakes and sprinted forward.

Using some very colourful language Holden tried to drag the throttles closed but they had locked in and needed disengaging.

Looking up he saw the fuel tanker had almost crossed the runway and he needed to ensure he didn’t hit them. With the undercarriage locked and reheat engaged it was impossible to steer the aircraft.

He hurtled towards the crossing point on the main runway where a transport aircraft was making its take-off run.

Running out of his own runway he saw the small village of Bradenstoke at its end.

Moving the control column back towards him, the jet into the air.

Having averted disaster on take-off he managed to disengage reheat and slowed the aircraft.

He now needed to land.

He had no flying helmet and no direct contact with the ground. He couldn’t eject as the seat was made safe by a multitude of safety locks.

He did the only thing he could and summoning up his pilot’s knowledge he came round towards the main runway for an emergency landing.

In all he made three attempts to land – learning more about the handling of the Lightning each time and recalling things like his brief introduction to the aircraft earlier in the day and times spent in the ATC armed with a copy of the Pilot’s Notes for the Lightning – an aide-memoire of facts and figures that he used should the pilot testing one of the serviced Lightnings have a technical question.

But although he was a qualified pilot his flying experience had been on training aircraft like the North American Harvard with him keeping up his knowledge on the little De Havilland Chipmunk – both very different to what was a few years earlier a front-line jet fighter.

On his third attempt he had all the information he needed to try a serious landing. He opted to land the ‘wrong way’ on the main runway – that way he wouldn’t overshoot and crash into Lyneham, another nearby village.

He made a wide circuit adjusting the controls to line up the jet with the runway. Down he came and as the main wheels touched the ground he released the braking parachute designed to slow the aircraft quicker.

Unfortunately he landed as he would have in one of the aircraft he was familiar with – all of these having a tail wheel and no nose wheel.

This means that he banged the tail of the aircraft against the ground and severed the brake chute cable which meant that the brake ‘chute had dropped useless to the runway as soon as it was released.

‘I felt reasonably calm because I had almost killed myself on five occasions in that 12 minute flight, yet I had miraculously survived.

What is more, I would see my wife and young family. Two or three times in that same 12 minutes, I thought I would never ever see them again.’

from Wing Commander Holden’s own account at http://counties.britishlegion.org.uk/counties/beds-herts-counties/articles-of-interest/a-memorable-fright

Although Wing Commander Holden was relieved to find he still had a career in the Royal Air Force the flight had a number of lasting effects on him.

By his own admission he was ‘unprepared for the release of the story to the public’ and became frustrated by the inaccuracy of some of the accounts written about his flight – some of which apparently had him flying while sitting on a box or even a wicker chair.

It is perhaps illustrative of the man that in an account written by him he notes complains that:

‘People wanted to write articles in newspapers, books, magazineS, interviews on TV and radio and underhand attempts to hear my account of what had happened.

Having admitted that I had made an unwise decision to do the ground tests, I decided that the unwanted publicity that I had attracted was in no way going to be for financial gain.

I steadfastly refused offers, although for a two-page article in the Sunday Express I requested the editors to make a contribution to the R.A.F. Benevolent Fund.

Despite prompts, no monies were ever handed over and I became very disillusioned with all publicity media.’

from Wing Commander Holden’s own account at http://counties.britishlegion.org.uk/counties/beds-herts-counties/articles-of-interest/a-memorable-fright

Elsewhere in the same account he states:

‘I have never sought publicity but, whenever it became impossible to suppress, I have had to live with it.

I enjoyed my career in the Royal Air Force, but not because of XM135!’

from Wing Commander Holden’s own account at http://counties.britishlegion.org.uk/counties/beds-herts-counties/articles-of-interest/a-memorable-fright

But he was to discover more than just frustration with the media.

He would spend at least two periods in hospital as a result of discovering a fear of high speed flying.

‘I had not come to terms with the emotional side of the event.

To return to my wife and family, after five close encounters with death, was indeed a miraculous experience, but I had not been honest with myself, to accept it as such, so I needed psychiatric help.

I could recall the technicalities of the flight without any hang-ups, but was unwilling to talk about that emotional side of the ordeal until I was placed under medical drugs and to bring those emotions to the surface.

That was a rewarding experience and it gave me a much better understanding of people who might need that same kind of help, after similar unfortunate occurrences.’

from Wing Commander Holden’s own account at http://counties.britishlegion.org.uk/counties/beds-herts-counties/articles-of-interest/a-memorable-fright

 OFFICE AWARD. The cockpit of Lightning XM 135. In this image - taken by IWM Duxford Volunteer Alun Clements at an Open Cockpit event some years ago at IWM Duxford - the small plaque commemorating Wing Commander Holden's leap to fame can be seen propped up on the cockpit coaming. Image © Alun Clements and used with his permission.

OFFICE AWARD. The cockpit of Lightning XM135. In this image – taken by IWM Duxford Volunteer Alun Clements at an IWM Duxford Open Cockpit event some years ago – the small plaque commemorating Wing Commander Holden’s leap to fame can be seen propped up on the cockpit coaming. Image © Alun Clements and used with his permission.

In 1974 the repaired aircraft was declared non-effective (that is no longer required by the RAF). (7)

It joined the Imperial War Museum’s collection at Duxford in April 1975 where it is resplendent in the colours it wore when serving with No 74 (F) Squadron RAF. (8)

Walter V Holden, BSc died on 11 December 2016 at the age of ninety. (9)

Additional information

The details of Holden’s flight and afterwards are based on a much fuller account written by him and published at:

http://counties.britishlegion.org.uk/counties/beds-herts-counties/articles-of-interest/a-memorable-fright

It is also where the quotes by Holden are drawn from.

This same account can be found at a number of other websites.

I believe it was written to try and correct the inaccuracies and myths that had grown up around the story – such as Holden was sitting on a box ( https://www.pprune.org/archive/index.php/t-570180.html and https://www.pprune.org/archive/index.php/t-590489.html ) or even a wicker chair ( https://www.pprune.org/archive/index.php/t-161406.html ) when he inadvertently took off.

Sources

(1) http://www.skytamer.com/English_Electric_Lightning_F.6.html – retrieved 5 February 2019

(2)https://www.baesystems.com/en-uk/heritage/english-electric-lightning – retrieved 5 February 2019

(3) https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/70000160 – retrieved 5 February 2019

(4) http://www.thunder-and-lightnings.co.uk/lightning/survivor.php?id=30 – retrieved 5 February 2019

(5) http://aerobaticteams.net/en/teams/i127/teams.html – retrieved 5 February 2019

(6) https://www.natotigers.org/tiger-units/74-f-squadron – retrieved 5 February 2019

(7) https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/70000160 – retrieved 5 February 2019

(8) https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/1060022291 – retrieved 5 February 2019

(9) https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/70000160 – retrieved 5 February 2019

IWM London’s Sopwith Camel aircraft and the last Zeppelin to be shot down in the First World War

RICHARD MADDOX

YOU CAN ALMOST HEAR THE GUNFIRE AS IT SWOOPS OVER THE CLIMBING TANK IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR GALLERIES AT IWM LONDON.

Almost.

Because this example of the famous British Sopwith Camel – so named because of the covering over the machine guns above the engine – was used by the Royal Naval Air Service.

It possibly never saw an army tank or the trenches of Europe when in service with the RNAS.

But this Camel fighter earned its fame in other ways.

THE ROYAL NAVAL AIR SERVICE 1914 - 1918 (Q 69932) SOPWITH CAMEL 2 F.1 BIPLANE FIGHTER N6812 flown by Lieutenant Stuart Culley at RAF Felixstowe. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 69932. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205359123

THE ROYAL NAVAL AIR SERVICE 1914 – 1918 (Q 69932) SOPWITH CAMEL 2 F.1 BIPLANE FIGHTER N6812 flown by Lieutenant Stuart Culley at RAF Felixstowe. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 69932. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205359123

Built as a Camel 2F. 1 to a slightly modified design for use by the RNAS, this particular aircraft help pioneer launching aircraft from the sea. (1)

LIGHTER H 3 COMPLETE WITH 30-foot DECK PANELS AND A SOPWITH CAMEL FIGHTER. It is being towed by a destroyer steaming at 10 knots. This was the second (and successful) attempt to fly off the lighter. It was achieved by Lieutenant Stuart Culley, RNAS on 31 July 1918. Other images of this type of lighter in IWM's collection show that the panels nearest the camera were painted with a plan representation of an aircraft, complete with roundel markings. These can be seen behind the three men seated on the forward edge of the platform. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 27510. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205288270

LIGHTER H 3 COMPLETE WITH 30-foot DECK PANELS AND A SOPWITH CAMEL FIGHTER. It is being towed by a destroyer steaming at 10 knots. This was the second (and successful) attempt to fly off the lighter. It was achieved by Lieutenant Stuart Culley, RNAS on 31 July 1918. Other images of this type of lighter in IWM’s collection show that the panels nearest the camera were painted with a plan representation of an aircraft, complete with roundel markings. These can be seen behind the three men seated on the forward edge of the platform. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 27510. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205288270

On 31 July 1918 Flight Sub-Lieutenant Stuart Douglas Culley RNAS used N6812 to successfully demonstrate that an aircraft could take-off from a towed lighter (a type of flat-bottomed barge). (2)

This was not an easy thing to do. The flight deck on the lighter was relatively small and being positioned near to the sea the airflow the aircraft needed to launch could be affected by the towing ship itself.

A previous test by Culley’s commanding officer and fellow pilot had ended with a Camel aircraft fitted with a ski undercarriage crashing into the water, before being run over by the lighter. Happily Charles Rumney Samson emerged uninjured. (3)

FLIGHT COMMANDER LIEUTENANT STUART CULLEY with Technical Officer Lieutenant Joseph Armitt and NCOs of Special Flight at Felixstowe. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 69934. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205359125

FLIGHT COMMANDER LIEUTENANT STUART CULLEY with Technical Officer Lieutenant Joseph Armitt and NCOs of Special Flight at Felixstowe. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 69934. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205359125. PLEASE NOTE THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN HORIZONTALLY REVERSED TO THAT WHICH APPEARS ON IWM’S WEBSITE in order to appear the correct way around.

Now less than two weeks later on the morning of Sunday 11 August 1918 Culley and his Camel were to be tested operationally.

And by the end of the day N6812 would claim the last Zeppelin downed during the First World War. (4)

Admiral Reginald Tyrwhitt RN, commander of the Harwich Strike Force (which was tasked with defending the east coast of Britain from attack) had sailed from Harwich the day before.

Now off the coast of The Netherlands near Terschelling, Tyrwhitt was conducting an offensive reconnaissance sweep designed to lure German forces into battle.

His ships that day comprised of three light cruisers and thirteen destroyers – five of which towed called lighters carrying either a float plane or a wheeled fighter.

Earlier in the mission Tyrwhitt had despatched six motor gunboats to attack German minesweepers.

But things had not gone to plan. The gunboats were sent without air cover as there was little wind. Caught by German seaplanes three of the small British force were sunk, two more disabled and just one made it to safety. (5)

Then at 08:24 a Zeppelin was spotted. (6)

HMS Redoubt increased speed. Culley and his aircraft were readied and launched into the August sky at 08:45.

Tyrwhitt would later remark that Culley’s take-off flight was ‘most inspiring, although he was soon lost in the clouds in which he manoeuvred to get the sun behind him’.

It would take him and his tiny single-seat fighter more than an hour to reach his quarry.

First flown in August 1917 L-53 was designed as a high-altitude long-range airship for the Marine-Luftschiffabteilung (the German Imperial Navy’s airship division).

THE GIGANTIC GERMAN IMPERIAL NAVAL ZEPPELIN L-53. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 58472. Original source https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205307669. PLEASE NOTE THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN HORIZONTALLY REVERSED TO THAT WHICH APPEARS ON IWM'S WEBSITE in order to appear the correct way around.

THE GIGANTIC GERMAN IMPERIAL NAVAL ZEPPELIN L-53. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 58472. Original source https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205307669. PLEASE NOTE THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN HORIZONTALLY REVERSED TO THAT WHICH APPEARS ON IWM’S WEBSITE in order to appear the correct way around.

With a length of 196.5 metres (approximately 650 feet) it could operate at around 610 metres (20,000 feet) and up to this date had completed nineteen reconnaissance missions observing troop  and shipping movements as well as well four bombing raids in which it dropped almost 11.75 tons of ordnance on England. (7) (8)

At the Zeppelin’s operating altitude sub-zero cold and the lack of oxygen became new enemies for both German and British airmen and their machines. Pilots could become disorientated or lose consciousness; instruments, control surfaces – and guns – could freeze.

At last Culley closed on the giant airship from below. Unobserved he pulled the aircraft  nose-up to get them on the target quickly opened fire.  One gun jammed but he emptied the magazine of the other one.

A streak of flame was seen at 09:40 and then a plume of white smoke. Debris fell into the North Sea below.

Kapitänleutnant Eduard Prölss – an experienced German airship commander – and his crew of nineteen  would become the last of the 379 officers and men serving with the Marine-Luftschiffabteilung lost on operations. (9)

As was standard practice at the time Culley flew back to the British ships, carefully landing his aircraft in the sea and waited to be picked up before the flimsy canvas and wood machine sank.

It and the pilot were safely recovered. The time was almost noon. The long time that Culley took to return and be picked up after his engagement – more than two hours – may be due to the fact that conditions limited the pilot’s visibility to just two miles. (10)

Culley would be awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) for his action.

His aircraft would be presented to the newly-formed Imperial War Museum and (without adequate space to display it) become one of nine lent to the Science Museum in London. Between 1924 and 1932 they were all stored in the museum’s basement. A report in the UK National Archives written at some point during this time describes their condition as ‘very bad’. (11)

In April 1946 (as preparation for a major exhibition to launch the post-war re-opening of Imperial War Museum) the aircraft – now in an RAF store – was viewed by Leslie Bradley, the museum’s director. Another report at the UK National  states that when N6812 was assembled its canvas covering was ‘seriously deteriorated’ and it was returned to storage. (12)

Happily things have progressed since then and N6812 (which was subsequently restored and has been a long-term resident at the London site for many year) is now displayed in the First World War Gallery at IWM London in beautiful condition.

SOURCES

(1) https://www.baesystems.com/en/heritage/sopwith-camel – retrieved 19 September 2018

(2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_1918 – retrieved 19 September 2018

(3) http://www.dreadnoughtproject.org/tfs/index.php/Charles_Rumney_Samson – retrieved 19 September 2018

(4) https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/70000220  – retrieved 19 September 2018

(5) http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/114180.html – retrieved 19 September 2018

(6) Transcript of unreferenced Air Historical Branch document ‘Coastal Motor Boat Operations June – August 1918’ http://www.ww1britainssurvivingvessels.org.uk/data/files/CMB%204/Coastal%20Motor%20Boat%20Operations%20June%20-%20August%201918.pdf – retrieved 19 September 2018. Page 6 of 8.

Note: There appear to be some typographical errors in this report or its transcription – for example Culley’s name is as ‘Cowley’.

(7) http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/showthread.php?t=34432 – retrieved 19 September 2018

(8) http://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/wiki.php?id=914 – retrieved 19 September 2018

(9) www.denkmalprojekt.org/verlustlisten/vl_off_mar-lsa_wk1.htm – retrieved 19 September 2018

(10) ‘Coastal Motor Boat Operations June – August 1918‘ – ibid. Page 7 of 8

(11) UK National Archives File AIR 2/510 ‘Retention and Disposal of War Period Aircraft at Science Museum’, 1932 – 1936 quoted in https://www.rafmuseum.org.uk/documents/collections/74-A-19-Sopwith-Triplane-N5912.pdf  – retrieved 19 September 2018

(12) UK National Archives File AIR 20/6289 ‘Reports on the collection and preservation of material for museum purposes – Air Historical Branch 4’

NOTE

There is a ‘Lives of the First World War’ page for Flight Lieutenant Culley at https://livesofthefirstworldwar.org/lifestory/7672468. If you can add to the information already published the project would love you to do so!