It came from the deep… to a fancy dress party – IWM’s Mk 9 Submarine Escape and Immersion Equipment (SEIE) suit

RICHARD MADDOX

IN THE MUSEUM WORLD PROVENANCE – THE DOCUMENTED HISTORY OF AN ARTEFACT – IS EVERYTHING.

Its important for a variety of reasons as it can answer a number of questions – is the item genuine? Is it really connected with the person, place or event that it is believed to be connected to? etc.

A FRONT VIEW OF THE ESCAPE AND IMMERSION SUIT fully closed up. Copyright: © IWM. IWM catalogue reference EQU 463. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30013185

A FRONT VIEW OF THE ESCAPE AND IMMERSION SUIT fully closed up. Copyright: © IWM. IWM catalogue reference EQU 463. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30013185

large_© IWM (EQU 463)_Mk_9_Escape_suitC

A THREE-QUARTERS VIEW OF THE ESCAPE SUIT, MK9 (SUBMARINE) showing the outer hood folded down to reveal the inner hood and face protection. Copyright: © IWM. IWM catalogue reference EQU 463. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30013185

REAR VIEW OF THE ROYAL NAVY ESCAPE SUIT WITH OUTER HOOD DEPLOYED. Copyright: © IWM. IWM catalogue reference EQU 463. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30013185

REAR VIEW OF THE ROYAL NAVY ESCAPE SUIT WITH OUTER HOOD DEPLOYED. Copyright: © IWM. IWM catalogue reference EQU 463. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30013185

 

Museums think a lot about provenance and use the verified information to describe not only the item’s history but sometimes also its technical description – what it is made of and what it was used for.

Unusually, the label for the Royal Naval Mk 9 Survival Suit on IWM’s website is short on detail. It gives the physical description for the item –  Suit bright orange day-glow one-piece with hood, integral boots and gloves and breathing system.

But it’s the next few lines that are perhaps the most fascinating: (1)

The suit was left in a pub in Barrow in Furness, Cumbria, following a fancy dress party attended by members of the ship’s company of one of the Vanguard class of ballistic missile submarines.

The suit was presented to the Dock Museum at Barrow in Furness by the publican.

 

The physical artifact label on the display case gives no more informative…

THE LABEL ON THE MK 9 SUBMARINE SURVIVAL SUIT DISPLAY CABINET at IWM London. Image © R Maddox 2018.

THE LABEL ON THE MK 9 SUBMARINE SURVIVAL SUIT DISPLAY CABINET at IWM London. Image © R Maddox 2018.

 

A little further research reveals that the suit was made by RFD Beaufort, a company that has been making military inflatable rafts and life jackets since the Second World War. (2)(3)

Designed for use at a depth of up to 600 feet (183 m), the suit has three separate COinflated chambers to enable the wearer to float in the water.

The outer hood is closed for the initial escape from the submarine, and unzipped on the surface.

It has a variety of Safety Of Life At Sea (SOLAS) approved features including light reflective panels and a light powered by a salt water battery. (4)

Regarding the story of how the suit was acquired, a member of staff at the Dock Museum in Barrow-in-Furness take up the story…

The survival suit was donated to the Dock Museum on 16 November 1995 and catalogued. It was ‘surplus obsolete stock’ from one of the four ‘Vanguard‘ submarines that were constructed at the shipyard in the town. It is now part of IWM’s collection.

The Dock Museum’s catalogue entry goes on to confirm the story that IWM has about the suit being taken to a fancy dress party and names the pub in question. (5)

The four Vanguard class submarines were built in Barrow in Furness between 1986 and 1998. Each is around 492 feet (150 metres) long. (6)

They were the first vessels to be constructed in the covered Devonshire Dock Hall (DDH) complex –  at the time known locally as ‘The Trident Shed’ because of the intended weapons the submarines would carry or  ‘Maggie’s Farm’ after the Conservative Prime Minister who headed the UK government at the time.

The huge  facility allows vessels to be constructed and modified in a secure and weather-proof environment. A huge moveable platform (531 feet/162 metres long and 72 feet/18.5 metres wide) called the shiplift enables completed vessels up to 24,000 tons to be lifted in and out of the water regardless of tidal conditions. (7) (8) (9)

Weather permitting, the DDH complex can be seen from up to 20 miles away.

All are still in service as of late 2018, having had a number of mid-life modifications during a lengthy refit and refuel period. (10)

These vessels are due to be replaced by the Dreadnought class which will be the largest British submarines ever built. They are due to enter service sometime from 2030 onward and continue the Royal Navy’s Continuous At Sea Deterrent (CASD), whereby at least one of four nuclear armed submarine is at sea for every hour of every day, every year . (11) (12) (13) (14)

_________________________________________

Sincere and grateful thanks are due to Eilidh Young (Collections and Exhibitions Manager) and to the Admin Team at the Dock Museum for their helpful, informative and speedy replies to my queries.

This post would not be here in its present form without their generous assistance.

On the edge of Britain’s Lake District, the Dock Museum at Barrow-in-Furness charts the story of the town from the Vikings to the present day. With ships and shipbuilding, the steelworks and the Furness railway such a prominent part of the social town’s history, these feature greatly in the exhibits and artefacts on display in this modern museum.

In addition the museum’s website provide much useful information on the museum and its themes.

For further information please see:

http://www.dockmuseum.org.uk

_________________________________________

SOURCES

(1)  http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30013185 – retrieved 11 November 2018

(2) https://survitecgroup.com/about-us/our-history/ – retrieved 11 November 2018

(3) http://rfdbeaufort.com/rfdBeaufort/rfd_Commercial/about/ – retrieved 11 November 2018

(4)  https://www.worthpoint.com/worthopedia/mk9-submarine-escape-immersion-suit-314573805 – retrieved 11 November 2018

(5) Email exchange between authors and Dock Museum – November 2018

(6) https://www.naval-technology.com/projects/vanguard-submarine/ – retrieved 11 November

(7) http://www.dockmuseum.org.uk/Shipbuilding-Modern-Days – retrieved 11 November 2018

(8) https://www.nwemail.co.uk/news/barrow/16454716.nostalgia-construction-of-shipyards-devonshire-dock-hall-30-years-ago/ – retrieved 11 November 2018

(9) https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-cumbria-14762995 – retrieved 11 November 2018

(10) https://www.naval-technology.com/projects/vanguard-submarine/ – retrieved 11 November 2018

(9) https://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/introducing-the-successor-class-the-largest-submarines-ever-18064 – retrieved 11 November 2018

(10) https://www.babcockinternational.com/News/Landmark-week-for-Vanguard-Class-Submarines-at-Devonport – retrieved 11 November 2018

(11) https://www.naval-technology.com/projects/vanguard-submarine/ – retrieved 11 November 2018

(12) https://www.baesystems.com/en-uk/article/production-begins-on-successor-programme – retrieved 11 November 2018

(13) https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-successor-submarines-named – retrieved 11 November 2018

(14) https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-nuclear-deterrence-factsheet  – retrieved 11 November 2018

 

 

 

A Venomous Return – HMS Eagle, Operation MUSKETEER – 2 November 1956

RICHARD MADDOX

THE AIRCRAFT CARRIER’S LOUD SPEAKERS CRACKLED OUT THE MESSAGE.

A damaged de Havilland jet fighter from No. 893 Squadron, Fleet Air Arm was returning to the Royal Navy’s HMS Eagle, part of the British Mediterranean fleet sailing off Port Said.

The date is 2 November 1956 and Operation MUSKETEER – the joint Israeli/British/French invasion of the Suez Canal region is in full swing. British forces have already been in action, bombing targets around Cairo from 31 October. (1)

The crew of the aircraft are Lieutenant Commander John Wilcox, Royal Navy and Robert Olding, Royal Air Force.

Olding – who had joined the RAF as a National Service intake before electing to make the service his career – was an experienced Gloster Meteor nightfighter navigator serving with No. 264 Squadron Royal Air Force before volunteering for a 2-year posting to the Fleet Air Arm, joining in May 1956. (2)

The pair had already been in action the previous day attacking Egyptian aircraft at Bilbeis airfield. (3)

Now they have lead seven other Sea Venoms in a similar attack on Almaza military airfield (about 10 miles/16 kilometres from Cairo). Here they encountered heavy and accurate Egyptian anti-aircraft fire which holed the underside of the aircraft’s nose damaging hydraulic lines and severely injuring Olding in his leg. He managed to apply a tourniquet administer morphine and carry on with his duties.wf

Uncertain of the damage sustained, Wilcox flew the tiny aircraft by the carrier. With the damage assessed, parked aircraft moved away and a fire crew and rescue crew on standby, the pilot came in low over the deck to get a feel for the landing.

Satisfied he lowered the aircraft’s arrestor hook so that the speeding aircraft could grab one of the cables slung across the deck that would bring the aircraft to a stop.

 A DAMAGED de Havilland Sea Venom of No. 893 Squadron Fleet Air Arm lands on the aircraft carrier HMS Eagle. The image captures the moment the aircraft's arrestor hook catches one of the steel cables designed to bring aircraft to a stop on the carrier's flight deck. Copyright: © IWM. IWM catalogue reference A 33610. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205187821

A DAMAGED de Havilland Sea Venom WW284 of No. 893 Squadron Fleet Air Arm lands on the aircraft carrier HMS Eagle. The image captures the moment the aircraft’s arrestor hook catches one of the steel cables designed to bring aircraft to a stop on the carrier’s flight deck. Copyright: © IWM. IWM catalogue reference A 33610. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205187821

Wilcox brought the aircraft in perfectly and the rescue crews quickly moved the injured navigator to the ship’s sick bay.

Olding was flown to a British military hospital on Cyprus. Unfortunately his leg became infected and had to amputated above the knee.

Despite this he would return to operational flying before retiring from the RAF in 1984. During this time he rose in rank to Group Captain and held a variety of appointments including Wing Commander (Operations) at RAF Station Lyneham in Wiltshire, England.

In 1979 – his first appointment as Group Captain – he became Officer Commanding RAF Station Aldergrove in Northern Ireland, a very busy and high-profile position during the ‘Troubles’. He also served with NATO and Headquarters RAF Support Command.

He died on 19 October 2012. (4)

HAVING COME SAFELY TO A STOP the aircraft is quickly surrounded by fire and a rescue personnel who release the crew and take Olding to the ship’s sickbay for treatment. Copyright: © IWM. IWM catalogue reference A 33609. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205193077

HAVING COME SAFELY TO A STOP the aircraft is quickly surrounded by fire and a rescue personnel who release the crew and take Olding to the ship’s sickbay for treatment. Copyright: © IWM. IWM catalogue reference A 33609. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205193077

The damaged aircraft was returned to the UK and placed in storage at Royal Naval Air Station HMS Sandling (now Glasgow airport) where it was broken up for spares before being finally scrapped on 18 July 1961. (5)

Operation MUSKETEER (a joint operation involving the armed forces of France, Great Britain and Israel) was conceived as a pre-emptive strike to occupy the Suez Canal following its nationalisation by President Egyptian Gamal Nasser in July 1956. The 120-mile long waterway connects the Red Sea with the Mediterranean to the north.

Under Nasser’s leadership the country had cut its ties with the west and asserted its own authority, buying weapons to modernise the country’s army and air force from Czechoslovakia. (6) 

Alarmed by this – and perhaps wishing to punish Nasser – the United States, Britain and the World Bank withdraw funding for the Aswan High Dam project – needed to supplement of the much modified Aswan Low Dam (built between 1898 and 1902) in controlling the annual flooding of the Nile River. (7) (8) 

In retaliation Nasser took control of the Suez Canal, declaring that he would use the revenue he would charge for its use to fund the Aswan project.

Forming a secret alliance the three nations formed a plan to take control of the canal. This involved Israel making a pre-emptive strike on the canal area (which it saw as a useful buffer zone to its fledgling state). (9) 

The Suez Canal was built between 1859 and 1869 by the La Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez (the Universal Suez Maritime Canal Company) under the supervision of the French diplomat and engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps. It became important for western trade – particularly British interests – although initially Britain saw the construction as an attempt to interfere with its influence in the region and tried to organise a boycott of the canal.

However during the canal’s first year of operation 75% of vessels that passed through were British. (10) 

De Lessops’ company was granted a 99-year lease to operate the canal in return for 44% of the shares in the venture. After the lease expired control would pass to the Egyptian government.

In 1875 Britain – which had originally declined the offer of shares in the canal – acquired the Egyptian stake when the impoverished government sold off its shares. Later that year the government was declared bankrupt, allowing European banks to influence control of the country and its policies. (11) 

Naturally this did not go down well with the Egyptian people and the resulting unrest prompted Britain to send troops to the country in 1882.

During the First World War Britain declared Egypt a British Protectorate and sent additional troops to protect the Canal. Although Britain declared limited independence in Egypt in 1922 a series of treaties enabled British military forces to remain in the Canal region until after Operation MUSKETEER. (12) 

SOURCES

(1)  https://ncap.org.uk/feature/suez-crisis – retrieved 27 September 2018

(2) (3) (4)  – retrieved 27 September 2018- retrieved 27 September 2018https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/9763899/Group-Captain-Robert-Olding.html – retrieved 27 September 2018

(5) http://www.ukserials.com/results.php?serial=WW – retrieved 27 September 2018

(6) http://www.historynet.com/learned-suez-crisis.htm– retrieved 27 September 2018

(7) https://www.ice.org.uk/what-is-civil-engineering/what-do-civil-engineers-do/nile-water-control – retrieved 27 September 2018

(8) https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1024&context=his – retrieved 27 September 2018

(9) https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/how-suez-crisis-was-win-israel-and-major-defeat-britain-and-france-33316 – retrieved 27 September 2018

(10) http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/suez_01.shtml – retrieved 27 September 2018

(11)  http://countrystudies.us/egypt/25.htm – retrieved 27 September 2018

(12)  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/suez_01.shtml – retrieved 27 September 2018

 

IWM London’s Sopwith Camel aircraft and the last Zeppelin to be shot down in the First World War

RICHARD MADDOX

YOU CAN ALMOST HEAR THE GUNFIRE AS IT SWOOPS OVER THE CLIMBING TANK IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR GALLERIES AT IWM LONDON.

Almost.

Because this example of the famous British Sopwith Camel – so named because of the covering over the machine guns above the engine – was used by the Royal Naval Air Service.

It possibly never saw an army tank or the trenches of Europe when in service with the RNAS.

But this Camel fighter earned its fame in other ways.

THE ROYAL NAVAL AIR SERVICE 1914 - 1918 (Q 69932) SOPWITH CAMEL 2 F.1 BIPLANE FIGHTER N6812 flown by Lieutenant Stuart Culley at RAF Felixstowe. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 69932. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205359123

THE ROYAL NAVAL AIR SERVICE 1914 – 1918 (Q 69932) SOPWITH CAMEL 2 F.1 BIPLANE FIGHTER N6812 flown by Lieutenant Stuart Culley at RAF Felixstowe. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 69932. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205359123

Built as a Camel 2F. 1 to a slightly modified design for use by the RNAS, this particular aircraft help pioneer launching aircraft from the sea. (1)

LIGHTER H 3 COMPLETE WITH 30-foot DECK PANELS AND A SOPWITH CAMEL FIGHTER. It is being towed by a destroyer steaming at 10 knots. This was the second (and successful) attempt to fly off the lighter. It was achieved by Lieutenant Stuart Culley, RNAS on 31 July 1918. Other images of this type of lighter in IWM's collection show that the panels nearest the camera were painted with a plan representation of an aircraft, complete with roundel markings. These can be seen behind the three men seated on the forward edge of the platform. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 27510. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205288270

LIGHTER H 3 COMPLETE WITH 30-foot DECK PANELS AND A SOPWITH CAMEL FIGHTER. It is being towed by a destroyer steaming at 10 knots. This was the second (and successful) attempt to fly off the lighter. It was achieved by Lieutenant Stuart Culley, RNAS on 31 July 1918. Other images of this type of lighter in IWM’s collection show that the panels nearest the camera were painted with a plan representation of an aircraft, complete with roundel markings. These can be seen behind the three men seated on the forward edge of the platform. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 27510. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205288270

On 31 July 1918 Flight Sub-Lieutenant Stuart Douglas Culley RNAS used N6812 to successfully demonstrate that an aircraft could take-off from a towed lighter (a type of flat-bottomed barge). (2)

This was not an easy thing to do. The flight deck on the lighter was relatively small and being positioned near to the sea the airflow the aircraft needed to launch could be affected by the towing ship itself.

A previous test by Culley’s commanding officer and fellow pilot had ended with a Camel aircraft fitted with a ski undercarriage crashing into the water, before being run over by the lighter. Happily Charles Rumney Samson emerged uninjured. (3)

FLIGHT COMMANDER LIEUTENANT STUART CULLEY with Technical Officer Lieutenant Joseph Armitt and NCOs of Special Flight at Felixstowe. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 69934. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205359125

FLIGHT COMMANDER LIEUTENANT STUART CULLEY with Technical Officer Lieutenant Joseph Armitt and NCOs of Special Flight at Felixstowe. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 69934. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205359125. PLEASE NOTE THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN HORIZONTALLY REVERSED TO THAT WHICH APPEARS ON IWM’S WEBSITE in order to appear the correct way around.

Now less than two weeks later on the morning of Sunday 11 August 1918 Culley and his Camel were to be tested operationally.

And by the end of the day N6812 would claim the last Zeppelin downed during the First World War. (4)

Admiral Reginald Tyrwhitt RN, commander of the Harwich Strike Force (which was tasked with defending the east coast of Britain from attack) had sailed from Harwich the day before.

Now off the coast of The Netherlands near Terschelling, Tyrwhitt was conducting an offensive reconnaissance sweep designed to lure German forces into battle.

His ships that day comprised of three light cruisers and thirteen destroyers – five of which towed called lighters carrying either a float plane or a wheeled fighter.

Earlier in the mission Tyrwhitt had despatched six motor gunboats to attack German minesweepers.

But things had not gone to plan. The gunboats were sent without air cover as there was little wind. Caught by German seaplanes three of the small British force were sunk, two more disabled and just one made it to safety. (5)

Then at 08:24 a Zeppelin was spotted. (6)

HMS Redoubt increased speed. Culley and his aircraft were readied and launched into the August sky at 08:45.

Tyrwhitt would later remark that Culley’s take-off flight was ‘most inspiring, although he was soon lost in the clouds in which he manoeuvred to get the sun behind him’.

It would take him and his tiny single-seat fighter more than an hour to reach his quarry.

First flown in August 1917 L-53 was designed as a high-altitude long-range airship for the Marine-Luftschiffabteilung (the German Imperial Navy’s airship division).

THE GIGANTIC GERMAN IMPERIAL NAVAL ZEPPELIN L-53. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 58472. Original source https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205307669. PLEASE NOTE THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN HORIZONTALLY REVERSED TO THAT WHICH APPEARS ON IWM'S WEBSITE in order to appear the correct way around.

THE GIGANTIC GERMAN IMPERIAL NAVAL ZEPPELIN L-53. Copyright IWM. IWM catalogue reference Q 58472. Original source https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205307669. PLEASE NOTE THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN HORIZONTALLY REVERSED TO THAT WHICH APPEARS ON IWM’S WEBSITE in order to appear the correct way around.

With a length of 196.5 metres (approximately 650 feet) it could operate at around 610 metres (20,000 feet) and up to this date had completed nineteen reconnaissance missions observing troop  and shipping movements as well as well four bombing raids in which it dropped almost 11.75 tons of ordnance on England. (7) (8)

At the Zeppelin’s operating altitude sub-zero cold and the lack of oxygen became new enemies for both German and British airmen and their machines. Pilots could become disorientated or lose consciousness; instruments, control surfaces – and guns – could freeze.

At last Culley closed on the giant airship from below. Unobserved he pulled the aircraft  nose-up to get them on the target quickly opened fire.  One gun jammed but he emptied the magazine of the other one.

A streak of flame was seen at 09:40 and then a plume of white smoke. Debris fell into the North Sea below.

Kapitänleutnant Eduard Prölss – an experienced German airship commander – and his crew of nineteen  would become the last of the 379 officers and men serving with the Marine-Luftschiffabteilung lost on operations. (9)

As was standard practice at the time Culley flew back to the British ships, carefully landing his aircraft in the sea and waited to be picked up before the flimsy canvas and wood machine sank.

It and the pilot were safely recovered. The time was almost noon. The long time that Culley took to return and be picked up after his engagement – more than two hours – may be due to the fact that conditions limited the pilot’s visibility to just two miles. (10)

Culley would be awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) for his action.

His aircraft would be presented to the newly-formed Imperial War Museum and (without adequate space to display it) become one of nine lent to the Science Museum in London. Between 1924 and 1932 they were all stored in the museum’s basement. A report in the UK National Archives written at some point during this time describes their condition as ‘very bad’. (11)

In April 1946 (as preparation for a major exhibition to launch the post-war re-opening of Imperial War Museum) the aircraft – now in an RAF store – was viewed by Leslie Bradley, the museum’s director. Another report at the UK National  states that when N6812 was assembled its canvas covering was ‘seriously deteriorated’ and it was returned to storage. (12)

Happily things have progressed since then and N6812 (which was subsequently restored and has been a long-term resident at the London site for many year) is now displayed in the First World War Gallery at IWM London in beautiful condition.

SOURCES

(1) https://www.baesystems.com/en/heritage/sopwith-camel – retrieved 19 September 2018

(2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_1918 – retrieved 19 September 2018

(3) http://www.dreadnoughtproject.org/tfs/index.php/Charles_Rumney_Samson – retrieved 19 September 2018

(4) https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/70000220  – retrieved 19 September 2018

(5) http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/114180.html – retrieved 19 September 2018

(6) Transcript of unreferenced Air Historical Branch document ‘Coastal Motor Boat Operations June – August 1918’ http://www.ww1britainssurvivingvessels.org.uk/data/files/CMB%204/Coastal%20Motor%20Boat%20Operations%20June%20-%20August%201918.pdf – retrieved 19 September 2018. Page 6 of 8.

Note: There appear to be some typographical errors in this report or its transcription – for example Culley’s name is as ‘Cowley’.

(7) http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/showthread.php?t=34432 – retrieved 19 September 2018

(8) http://aviation-safety.net/wikibase/wiki.php?id=914 – retrieved 19 September 2018

(9) www.denkmalprojekt.org/verlustlisten/vl_off_mar-lsa_wk1.htm – retrieved 19 September 2018

(10) ‘Coastal Motor Boat Operations June – August 1918‘ – ibid. Page 7 of 8

(11) UK National Archives File AIR 2/510 ‘Retention and Disposal of War Period Aircraft at Science Museum’, 1932 – 1936 quoted in https://www.rafmuseum.org.uk/documents/collections/74-A-19-Sopwith-Triplane-N5912.pdf  – retrieved 19 September 2018

(12) UK National Archives File AIR 20/6289 ‘Reports on the collection and preservation of material for museum purposes – Air Historical Branch 4’

NOTE

There is a ‘Lives of the First World War’ page for Flight Lieutenant Culley at https://livesofthefirstworldwar.org/lifestory/7672468. If you can add to the information already published the project would love you to do so!